Absolute and relative dating archaeology
The formation of rings is affected by drought and prosperous seasons. This method compares the age of remains or fossils found in a layer with the ones found in other layers. Sample should be collected from and undisturbed layer. This method is based on the fact that when a material is heated or exposed to sunlight, electrons are released and some of them are trapped inside the item.
Spongy bones absorb more fluorine than compact or harder bones. The process of radio-active decay of potassium continues and the argon accumulated again which when measured will give a clue as to the age of the rock. The oldest dating method which studies the successive placement of layers.
The best results can be obtained from specimens, which were preserved under very dry conditions, or even enclosed in rock tombs of the like. This process frees energy in the form of light, which can be measured. These are called relative and absolute dating techniques. This method is based on the fact that the magnetic field of the earth is changing constantly in direction and proporationate intensity, and that these changes lead to measurable records.
Obsidian is a natural glass substance that is often formed as a result of volcanic activity. Virtually all argon that had accumulated in the parent material will escape. The comparison helps establish the relative age of these remains. The glow emitted is directly proportional to the radiation it received multiplied by the years. Thus there is co-relation between the rings of one tree to that of another.
In the years with unfavourable weather the growth rings will be unusually narrow. Determine the age of fossils, rocks, or ancient monuments. It may also be collected with the help of glass.
The emissions are measured to compute the age. This method of dating depends upon the measurements of detectable damage called tracks in the structure of glasses caused by the fission. Relative techniques are of great help in such types of sediments. Here we come to the question of how accurate the dates are that we currently have regarding the history of the human race and our planet. Although absolute dating methods determine the accurate age compared to the relative methods, both are good in their own ways.
This technique solely depends on the traces of radioactive isotopes found in fossils. It is known that may minerals and natural glasses obsidian, tektites contain very small quantities of uranium. This method can date the sample upto the time of cutting the tree, but not the date when it was actually brought into use. Bones from fossils absorb fluorine from the groundwater.
Although both relative and absolute dating methods are used to estimate the age of historical remains, the results produced by both these techniques for the same sample may be ambiguous. The first method was based on radioactive elements whose property of decay occurs at a constant rate, known as the half-life of the isotope. The fluorine method is most suitable for the relative dating of bones in gravelly or sandy alluvial deposits in temperate regions. These rings are shown by the trees growing in regions with regular seasonal changes of climate. Samples which are in contact or near the roots of any plants or trees should not be collected because these roots may implant fresh carbon into the specimens.
Another absolute dating method is thermoluminescence, which dates the last time an item was heated. Stainless steel, glass, polythene and aluminium are free from carbonatious organic material. The fresh tracks are counted to date the sample. Thus, measuring the ratio of D to L in a sample enables one to estimate how long ago the specimen died.
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